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Organic Chemistry Tutor: Lindsay B. from Watertown, MA

About Lindsay B. from Watertown, MA

Former Engineer, Current H.S. Chemistry and Biology Teacher – Tutor near Watertown, MA

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Hi. I’m Lindsay. I’m looking to be an Organic Chemistry Tutor. So, if you live near Watertown, MA, then please contact me. I’d be happy to be your Organic Chemistry Tutor!

I am a high school biology and chemistry teacher, so I am very familiar with the Massachusetts state frameworks, and also the MCAS tests. I currently tutor students in my district preparing for the biology MCAS test in June. 94% of my biology students (including transfers and special education students) passed the MCAS last year.In college, I studied chemical engineering and was pre-med, so I have taken advanced math and science courses. I have tutored students in algebra and seen improve

Organic Chemistry Tutor Subject List

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SubjectList-algebra 1, biology, chemistry, genetics, organic chemistry

Organic Chemistry Tutor Details

  • Rate: $50
  • Travel Radius: 20
  • Lindsay lives in Watertown, MA, 2472

[googlemaps addr=’Watertown, MA’ width=’680′ height=’680′]

Key Organic Chemistry Concepts

There are various key elements that comprise what we understand to be Organic Chemistry. Below are the main concepts:


Lindsay B. from Watertown, MA believes that structure is normally defined as the organizational pattern or arrangement of parts that characterizes a thing. Chemists use this term to refer to the manner in which the atoms that compose a molecule of a specific compound are attached (bonded) to one another and oriented in space. This information is usually provided by a structural formula; examples of such formulas will be found throughout this text. Three important aspects of structural formulas are:

  • Composition: The kinds and numbers of atoms that compose a molecule of a compound.
  • Constitution: The manner in which the component atoms of a molecule are bonded to each other. Different compounds having the same composition but different constitutions are called isomers. The prefix iso is from the Greek word for “the same or alike”.
  • Configuration: The shape of a molecule in three-dimensional space. Isomers differing only in configuration are called stereoisomers.

Without going to much into the “chemistry” part of Organic Chemistry, think of structure like the figure below: organic chemistry structure homework

Imagine structures that may be assembled from identical cubes by glueing them together face-to-face. Since a cube has six identical faces, up to six other cubes may be attached to a given cube. The composition of structures prepared in this manner is simply the number of cubes used in their construction. The more cubes we use, the more different structures we can assemble and the more complex some of the structures may be. If we limit our attention to structures made up of four cubes, we will discover eight such assemblies. As shown in the following diagram, these isomeric structures may be divided into three constitutional groups.

For Lindsay B. from Watertown, MA, the first group consists of five structures (1 through 5) in which two cubes (colored blue) are each attached to two other cubes, and the remaining two cubes are each attached to one cube (these are shaded gray). The second constitutional group consists of two structures (6 & 7) in which one cube (colored green) is attached to three other cubes, and the remaining three (shaded gray as before) are attached only to the first. Finally one structure (8), representing a third constitution, is a ring of four identically bonded cubes, each attached to two others and colored blue.

Acids and Bases

Acids and Bases are complementary terms that are often used carelessly in common discourse. Chemists require precise definitions. Two systems, the Brønsted and the Lewis systems, are widely used. The range of acid (and base) strengths is enormous, encompassing over fifty powers of ten! We are accustomed to calling strong acids, such as sulfuric acid (H2SO4), acids. However, water is also an acid, albeit far weaker; and the acidity of methane (CH4) is so weak that it is normally not considered to be an acid. Some compounds may function as both acids and bases, a characteristic called amphoterism. Water is an example of an amphoteric compound.

Magnetic Attraction

We’re clearly no longer in Watertown, MA if we’re talking about experiments in electrostatics have demonstrated that opposite charges (plus & minus) are attracted to each other, but that like charges are repelled. Such charges are produced by removing (or adding) electrons from (or to) an object. Atoms or molecules that carry a charge are called ions, and the same principle governs their interactions. Many organic reactions are influenced by a similar factor. Electron deficient species, which may or may not be positively charged, are attracted to electron rich species, which may or may not be negatively charged. We refer to these species in the following way:
  • Electrophiles:   Electron deficient atoms, molecules or ions that seek electron rich reaction partners.
  • Nucleophiles:   Electron rich atoms, molecules or ions that seek electron deficient reaction partners.


Common use of the term stability implies an object, system or situation that is likely to remain unchanged for a significant period of time. In chemistry, however, we often refer to two kinds of stability.

Chemical Reactions

Chemical reactions are the heart of chemistry. This vast and complex subject must be examined in a systematic fashion if we hope to understand it. To this end it is useful to define the components of a reaction as follows. Furthermore, it should be recognized that several competing reactions may take place in a given system, and their relative velocities (rates) will generally influence the composition of the products.

SUBSTRATE usually the largest organic molecule undergoing change + REAGENTS organic & inorganic compounds also involved in the reaction CONDITIONS => solvent, temperature, catalysts etc. PRODUCTS in many cases only the organic products are listed


Many chemical reactions are reversible. This means they may proceed in both directions (from reactants to products, or from products to reactants). In such cases an equilibrium state occurs, in which the rates of the two reactions are identical. The following equation describes a general case in which reactants A & B are in equilibrium with products C & D. An equilibrium always favors the more thermodynamically stable side of the equilibrium. This is reflected by the equilibrium constant, Keq , defined as the ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentrations.

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